Understanding Boot in a 1031 Exchange

A 1031 exchange allows real estate investors to defer capital gains taxes on the exchange of like-kind properties. However, not all exchanges are completely tax-deferred. Sometimes, you might receive some taxable proceeds—known as “boot”—during your exchange. Boot can include cash, non-like-kind property, or relief from debt that doesn’t match new debt assumed on a replacement property.

Handling Boot Effectively

If you plan to take some boot, the best strategy is to do so at the beginning of your transaction. Here’s how:

  • Modify your exchange documents and closing instructions to explicitly state your intention to take boot.
  • Instruct the settlement agent (usually a title company or escrow officer) to distribute the specified amount of boot directly to you before the rest of the funds are transferred to your Qualified Intermediary (QI).
  • By taking the boot early in the closing process, you avoid complications that can arise if you try to withdraw funds after they have been handed over to the QI.

Alternatively, if you’re uncertain about how much boot you’ll need, you can wait until the end of your exchange period. Any unutilized funds returned to you from the QI then become taxable boot.

Avoiding Boot in Your Exchange

To ensure a fully tax-deferred exchange, follow these guidelines:

  • Select like-kind replacement properties that are equal or greater in value compared to the relinquished property.
  • Reinvest all proceeds from the sale of your old property into the new property.
  • Match or increase the debt on the replacement property compared to the debt on the relinquished property. Using additional cash to balance a reduction in debt can also prevent boot.

Tax Implications of Boot

The receipt of boot doesn’t disqualify your exchange but does trigger tax liabilities. Here’s how it breaks down:

  • Capital Gains Tax: The federal income tax rate on capital gains for property held longer than one year is typically 15%. This applies after any ordinary income recapture on depreciation.
  • Depreciation Recapture: In a 1031 exchange, the sequence of taxation starts with any excess depreciation recapture taxed at ordinary rates, followed by 25% tax on Section 1250 gains, with the remainder subjected to the 15% capital gains rate.

Combining Seller Financing with a 1031 Exchange

Using seller financing can complicate a 1031 exchange but can be managed by ensuring any notes or contracts are structured to defer gains. Utilizing the installment sale rules under IRC §453 allows the deferral of taxable gain into the replacement property, effectively minimizing immediate tax liabilities.


Handling and avoiding boot in a 1031 exchange requires careful planning and precise execution. By understanding the nature of boot and its tax implications, and by strategically managing the timing and conditions of your real estate transactions, you can maximize the benefits of your 1031 exchange and minimize your tax obligations. Always consult with a tax professional or financial advisor to ensure compliance and optimize your investment strategy.